Download PDF by John G. Webster (Editor) : 58.Speech and Audio Processing

By John G. Webster (Editor)

ISBN-10: 0792344987

ISBN-13: 9780792344988

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Good values for ␩ and ␳ depend heavily on the used NN structure, the training data, and the initialization of w (which is often random using small values) and have to be found by experiments. If an on-line procedure is used, then the estimated gradient to be used for one update depends only on a small part of the available training data, which might lead to a large fluctuation of the gradient and therefore to slower training. In this case the local gradient estimate may be smoothed and improved by ∂ (i−1) ∂ (i) ∂ (i) E := (1 − α) · E E +α· w w w ∂w ∂w ∂w (15) with 0 Յ Ͱ Յ 1 controlling the amount of smoothing.

The neurons are often organized in layers as groups of neurons, with consecutive layers being usually fully connected, meaning that each neuron of a layer is connected to all neurons of the next layer. When neurons’ outputs are at the same time one of the K neural network outputs, they belong to the output layer; otherwise they belong to one of the hidden layers. Activation functions for hidden layer neurons are commonly the sigmoid function f act(a) ϭ 1/(1 ϩ eϪa) or its equivalent by a linear transformation, the tanh function f act(a) ϭ (ea Ϫ eϪa)/(ea ϩ eϪa), with the latter one often leading to slightly faster convergence using commonly used training procedures.

J. , 20 (6): 14–27, 1987. -M. -P. Wu, A fault-tolerant routing strategy in hypercube multicomputers, IEEE Trans. , C-45: 143–154, 1996. M. Jeng and H. J. Siegel, Design and analysis of dynamic redundancy networks, IEEE Trans. , C-37: 1019–1029, 1988. V. P. Kumar and S. M. , 20 (6): 30–40, 1987. R. J. McMillen and H. J. Siegel, Routing schemes for the augmented data manipulator network in an MIMD system, IEEE Trans. , C-31: 1202–1214, 1982. K. Padmanabhan and D. H. Lawrie, A class of redundant path multistage interconnection networks, IEEE Trans.

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58.Speech and Audio Processing by John G. Webster (Editor)

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