By Rene De La Pedraja
A most well known authority has written the 1st entire reference concerning the U.S. service provider Marine and American delivery from the creation of steamships to ultra-modern diesel containerships--showing the impression of politics, economics, and expertise on maritime historical past over the past centuries. Over 500 entries describe humans, deepest businesses, enterprise and exertions teams, engineering and technological advancements, govt firms, phrases, key legislation, landmark circumstances, matters, occasions, and ships of notice. brief lists of references for extra interpreting accompany those entries. Appendices comprise a chronology, diagrams of presidency firms, and lists of commercial and hard work teams via founding dates. An strangely huge index lends itself to the various learn pursuits of scholars, academics, and execs in maritime and fiscal background, business-labor-government relatives, and army studies.
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Extra resources for A Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Merchant Marine and Shipping Industry: Since the Introduction of Steam
Once the war was over, the company did not want the surviving ships back, which in any case were overage, and instead preferred to bareboat* charter government vessels for the intercoastal trade and for a service to the Far East, at least until the postwar shipping situation became clearer. Roger's son, Lewis A. Lapham,* became the president of the company in 1947, and he moved headquarters back to New York City from San Francisco. The company was wisely keeping its options open, but the Korean War panicked American-Hawaiian into buying six surplus ships on the mistaken assumption that high freight rates would continue indefinitely.
In the United States the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) has been the classification society* that has set safety standards and has inspected vessels to rate or "classify" their seaworthiness. The bureau replaced the American Shipmasters' Association,* which, besides classifying ships, had also certified the officers. The new bureau limited itself to surveying and rating the vessels in order to determine their correct classification for insurance purposes. In 1901 Lloyd's Register of Shipping, the British classification society, sent a committee to the United States to try to absorb ABS, but the takeover attempt failed.
Entry into World War II, the fleet of AEL was requisitioned, but once peace returned, the company proceeded to reconstitute its fleet with surplus vessels. Three of the Four Aces had been lost during the war, and as replacements, AEL preferred to buy four navy attack transport ships and convert them to combination passenger-cargo liners. All four were completed in 1948 and were likewise called the Four Aces, keeping the same names of the first generation, namely, Excalibur, Exochorda, Exeter, and Excambion.
A Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Merchant Marine and Shipping Industry: Since the Introduction of Steam by Rene De La Pedraja