By S. Betzelt, S. Bothfeld
This publication analyzes in what method activation rules effect on given styles of social citizenship that predominate in nationwide contexts. It argues that the liberal paradigm of activation brought into labour marketplace guidelines in all Western ecu states demanding situations the categorical styles of social citizenship in each one kingdom.
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Additional info for Activation and Labour Market Reforms in Europe: Challenges to Social Citizenship
The present development is thus the reﬂection of a deeper societal process more than a simple reinforcement of the ‘classical’ insider–outsider divide, the erosion of the core employment status from which social democratic actors derived their political resources (see Béraud/Eydoux as well as Betzelt/Bothfeld in this volume). If we include the shift in political power and resources in our set of basic assumptions, the observed social policy change must be considered as a paradigmatic change rather than the mere enhancement of already existing patterns and divides.
The basic income largely remains a utopian idea, as it is largely decoupled from the political context, lacks a systematic approach of how it could be combined with the reform of existing social insurance schemes, not to mention its main ﬂaw, which consists of the fact that tax-based security schemes are speciﬁcally prone to retrenchment policies. In other words, to date, we do not have at hand a wise proposal of how to balance the basic normative conﬂict between an egalitarian and a liberal strategy of welfare provision that would allow for universal access to generous social security provisions.
Accordingly, modifying the opportunities of social mobility between different social statuses by enabling or hampering upward transitions is usually accompanied by a redeﬁnition of legitimate status differences and political struggle. 3. The dimension of citizens’ commitment and participation The third dimension refers to a person’s role as social and political citizen, as a more or less active participant in ‘public’ affairs. We assume that the very relationship between the state and its citizens is marked 24 Activation, Autonomy and Social Citizenship by some form of commitment to common values and the recognition of duties towards the community.
Activation and Labour Market Reforms in Europe: Challenges to Social Citizenship by S. Betzelt, S. Bothfeld