By Rakesh Bajpai, Aleš Prokop, Mark Zappi
Over the prior century, the vast majority of chemical and effort wishes of our business society has originated from fossilized carbon assets (coal, crude oil, normal gas). more and more, there's a recognition that usage of the fossilized carbon assets has antagonistic environmental results within the type of expanding focus of greenhouse gases. we're additionally changing into conscious of the constrained nature of those assets. consequently, significant efforts are being made to provide chemical compounds and fuels from renewable assets reminiscent of woodland items, agricultural residues and plant items. All of those platforms trap solar power and atmospheric carbon dioxide as part of the common carbon cycle. severe study efforts also are underway, concentrating on cultivation of photosynthetic autotrophic microbes for the construction of biomass and lipids. during this class, algae looks to provide the main power for taking pictures solar power and atmospheric carbon dioxide and offering adequate amounts of biomass/lipids that may offset the fossilized carbon usage in a significant demeanour with out impacting nutrition output adversely. besides the fact that, numerous advances, either technologically in addition to politically, are wanted ahead of we will be able to detect its complete power. it's also transparent biorefinery procedure has to be undertaken that allows you to harvest renewable power and chemical compounds from algae economically. This edited, multi-authored quantity on Algal Biorefineries will record new advances concerning algae-based technology.
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Extra info for Algal Biorefineries: Volume 1: Cultivation of Cells and Products
As for bacterial cultures, monitoring the algal biomass concentration is easily done by correlating dry weight and optical density at 680 nm (or other wavelength in the 500–700 nm range) using a spectrophotometer without correcting for scatter (Holland et al. 2011). 44 A. D. Holland and J. M. 1 Fluorescence Response In an algal culture, the absorbed photons are either processed into biomass through the generation of an electron flow or dissipated (as chlorophyll fluorescence or heat). Photosynthetic electron transport can be modeled as a two-phase process.
As the algal culture density increases, the light input becomes limiting. The culture biomass production rate transitions to a non-exponential behavior, and the following equation describes the system behavior, as based on derivations for fedbatch heterotrophic cultures (Yamanè and Shimizu 1984): d (VC ⋅ C ) (8) = Φ DW [ I 0 ⋅ AC − I OUT ⋅ AC − mP ⋅VC ⋅ C ] dt 38 A. D. Holland and J. M. Dragavon where I0 is the incident Photosynthesis Photon Flux Density (PPFD, in µE m−2 h−1); AC is the area of the culture perpendicular to the light source (in m2); IOUT is the transmitted/scattered PPFD (in µEm−2 h−1); ΦDW is the autotrophic yield (in gDW µEabsorbed−1); mP is the maintenance energy to sustain biomass (in µE gDW−1 h−1).
I. units; c the celerity of light in m s−1; Na is Avogadro’s constant in mol−1; EP(λ) is the energy reported for each wavelength increment dλ at λ in W m−2 nm−1; n(λ) is the photon flux reported for each wavelength increment dλ at λ in Einstein s−1 m−2 nm−1. 1): PSUN ( ) = · EP ( ) 700 ∫ 400 · EP ( ) d (3) Algal Reactor Design Based on Comprehensive Modeling of Light and Mixing 33 Fig. 3) The fraction of energy in the PAR region, given a total energy measured in the wavelength range λ1–λ2, is: 700 FPAR = ∫E P (λ)d λ P (λ)d λ (4) 400 λ2 ∫E λ1 Percent energy in the PAR region as well as Einstein-to-Joules conversion factors are reported in Table 2.
Algal Biorefineries: Volume 1: Cultivation of Cells and Products by Rakesh Bajpai, Aleš Prokop, Mark Zappi